Buffalo Area Church Stained Glass Manufacturers - Table of Contents ................ Stained Glass - Table of Contents
A History of Early Stained Glass Manufacturing in Buffalo, New York
By Chris Andrle
On this page:
Chronology of the early Stained Glass Industry in Buffalo
Style and Technique
Restoration and Conservation
Appendix A - Companies
Appendix B - Biographies
Appendix C - Buffalo Stained Glass Works ... Otto F. Andrle Stained Glass and Art Studio
Beginning in the second half of the sixteenth century, the production of stained glass in Europe went into a rapid decline so that by the end of the eighteenth century the secrets of the production of stained glass seemed to have been lost forever. Colored glass was difficult to find and the traditional techniques had been forgotten. But the nineteenth century brought a revival and the first quarter of the century was a period of experimentation when many of the techniques from the middle ages were rediscovered. By the 1830s and 1840s, many new stained glass workshops were opened in Europe and immigrants soon after were carrying these newly rediscovered techniques to America.
Stained glass manufacturing first appeared in Buffalo during this period of revival when the operators of a painting and decorating business in the Webster Block on Main Street began to advertise glass staining and enameling. A sampling of the Buffalo city directories shows that from this time until at least the middle of the twentieth century, the manufacture of stained glass in Buffalo appears to have been in the hands of a relatively small group of people, connected with or descendants of the proprietors of this original business.
Among these people, there are several names that became synonymous with the making of stained glass in Buffalo, in particular, Booth, Riester and Frohe. This paper is an attempt to explore the history of the stained glass industry in Buffalo in terms of the relationships and connections between the principals and businesses involved.
Sources consulted were Buffalo city directories, local newspapers, local histories and other primary and secondary materials found in the special collections room of the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library and the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society research library. Some material may also be available in the libraries at SUNY College at Buffalo and SUNY University at Buffalo.
Due to the limited time available, not all available sources were consulted and the opportunity exists for much further research. For example, among significant sources not examined were the Leo P. Frohe Family Papers manuscript collection consisting of receipts, family papers and newspaper clippings from 1875 to 1939 at the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society research library. Also, early issues of the Stained Glass Quarterly, a publication of the Stained Glass Association of America, which has been published since 1906, and a recently published index, were not available in any local libraries.
Chronology of the early Stained Glass Industry in Buffalo
The following chronology was developed from primary sources such as city directories and local newspapers as well as some published secondary sources in an attempt to answer some of the following questions. Who were the people involved in stained glass manufacturing in Buffalo? When did they arrive in Buffalo and where did they come from? Can conclusions about the origins of styles and techniques in use in Buffalo be drawn from the answers to these questions? What was the relationship of the industry in Buffalo to that in the rest of the United States or to the industry in Europe? Can it be determined how the industry in Buffalo was affected by the high popularity of residential stained glass near the turn of the century and its subsequent fall from favor? What were the effects of the depression and the World Wars on the industry?
Buffalo Stained Glass Works - William G. Miller
The first stained glass manufacturer in the city of Buffalo appears to have been the Buffalo Stained Glass Works, founded on a small scale in 1845 by William G. Miller. (Bailey, p. 203) According to the city directories, Miller apparently operated a paint store in the four-story Webster Block on lower Main Street in Buffalo as early as 1844.
This was a period of rapid growth in Buffalo. The Erie Canal had opened in 1825 and Buffalo had been incorporated as a city in 1832. In the 1840s, Buffalo's population more than doubled. By 1847, rail passenger service was available from New York to Buffalo and travelers could reach Chicago by steamboat, just five days after leaving the eastern seaboard. The Webster Block stood at Main and Perry Streets, just a few yards from the hustle and bustle of the canal district and the teeming masses of people heading west.
Little is known about William G. Miller and there is no indication that he was a glass stainer himself. A limited search of Buffalo city directories shows him as either a painter or paint store operator at the Webster Block address from at least 1844 to 1848, although the paint shop seems to have existed at least until 1852. Even if Miller wasn't a glass stainer himself, he seems to have had glass stainers working for him. Charles J. Thurston appears in 1847 and 1848 as a glass stainer with W. G. Miller, but by 1852, Miller had disappeared and Thurston had moved to 79 Main Street.
While Charles J. Thurston appears to have been the first glass stainer in Buffalo, three other early Buffalonians in the painting business also later branched out into glass staining. George L. Burns, who also got his start as a painter with William G. Miller, began doing some glass staining and enameling as early as 1852 and operated on Main Street until his death in 1873.
William H. Myers, another painter with William G. Miller, seems to have gone with Charles J. Thurston to 79 Main Street and then later branched off on his own, working until his death in 1883.
And finally, Henry G. White, another painter, seems to have succeeded William G. Miller in the operation of the paint shop in the Webster Block before also moving to 79 Main Street with Thurston and Myers where he worked as a glass stainer until at least 1866.
Thurston, Burns, Myers and White seem to have been the first glass stainers in Buffalo and all appear to have got their start at William G. Miller's Buffalo Stained Glass Works in the Webster Block paint shop. So far, no information has been found regarding the origin of these four craftsmen, when they arrived in Buffalo or where they acquired their skills. Additional research in local newspaper files as well as genealogical research in census, naturalization and other records would be necessary to further document these men.
Buffalo Stained Glass Works - Charles J. Thurston, et. al.
Charles J. Thurston succeeded Miller as proprietor of Buffalo Stained Glass Works sometime between 1848 and 1852. (Bailey, p. 203) In the late 1850s, he apparently moved the business from Main Street to the corner of Pearl and The Terrace, a location that the business was to occupy until sometime in the twentieth century.
In 1862, Thurston brought William Booth into the partnership. Booth was an experienced art glazier who had arrived in Buffalo in the mid-1840s from Kent, England. (Buffalo Courier, April 4, 1892)
In 1864 or 1865, Booth and Ferdinand Riester bought out Thurston completely. Riester was a native of France who had arrived in Buffalo in 1852. He had learned the stained glass trade by working as an apprentice to George L. Burns from about 1856 to 1864. (Buffalo Express, September 1888)
William Booth and Ferdinand Riester operated the business until 1888 when William Booth retired. At that time, the stained glass studio occupied three floors, each sixty by sixty feet square at the corner of Pearl Street and The Terrace. Twenty skilled artists were employed. By that time, examples of their work could be seen all over the United States and Canada, as well as in churches, public buildings, theaters, libraries, hotels and private homes around Buffalo. (Industries of Buffalo, p. 111)
Buffalo Stained Glass Works - Riester and Frohe
After the retirement of William Booth in 1888, Riester formed a partnership with Leo P. Frohe. Frohe had learned the stained glass art from his father, Gottfried Frohe who had arrived in Buffalo from Holland in 1866. In 1890, the firm of Riester and Frohe occupied three stories and the basement at Pearl and The Terrace, employed 22 skilled workmen, and had installed windows in 850 churches around the world. They had all the patterns of the Burns, Thurston and Myers Stained Glass Works and had sent samples to the Paris Exposition, which were awarded a silver medal. (Bailey, p. 203)
By 1902, the Riester and Frohe partnership had been dissolved. The Buffalo Stained Glass Works continued for some time at the Pearl Street address.
By this time, the use of art glass in residential and commercial construction had become very common, resulting in a large increase in the number of concerns involved in the work. The city directories for 1902 and 1905 each contain a total of eight businesses that were engaged in the production of stained glass or art glass. Most of these companies were not producing the elaborate and costly church windows of the past, but rather were making smaller, simpler windows, usually from pattern books, for use in homes or businesses.
The popularity of residential art glass soon fell off, however, and most of these companies either left the business or failed. Foreign competition, the First World War and the depression further reduced the market for stained glass and few businesses survived.
Otto F. Andrle
Otto F. Andrle, a long-time employee of the Buffalo Stained Glass Works, founded his own studio in 1913 and in 1926 completed the windows for Father Baker's Our Lady of Victory Basilica in Lackawanna, probably one of the largest and most important installations of domestically produced stained glass in the country, before being forced to close in 1930.
Today, approximately two-dozen different stained glass studios operate in Buffalo. The Frohe Art Glass Studio survives, now operated by Paul E. Frohe, a fourth generation descendant of Gottfried Frohe, the founder. Several glass studios specialize in the restoration of stained glass windows and most of the rest are small shops, craftsmen and hobbyists who are capitalizing on the recent resurgence of interest in the stained glass craft.
Style and Technique
Different types of windows were produced for churches, residences and public buildings. Two different styles are usually mentioned, American and German.
The German style is the traditional or European style, reminiscent of medieval stained glass windows.
The American style is also known as opalescent and is typified by the work of Tiffany and LaFarge, some examples of which can be seen in Buffalo. Otto Andrle advertised both styles, but so far, I have not seen any evidence of American style windows by Buffalo stained glass companies.
In 1890, the Buffalo Stained Glass Works was engaged in the production of ecclesiastic and domestic art stained glass, sculptural figure pieces, memorial windows, mosaic and ornamental windows in antique, also rolled cathedral, opalescent, Venetian, stained and enameled glass. (Bailey, p.203) Otto Andrle advertised fresco and mural painting, mosaics and stained glass portraits as well as "ancient and modern ecclesiastical art" but so far, no examples of anything but the traditional, medieval style church windows have been found.
Apparently there has always been a bias in favor of imported windows. Windows imported from Europe were considered by many to be of higher quality when often they were not. American artists were always fighting this stereotype. Tour guides in Our Lady of Victory Basilica in Lackawanna, New York were always known to proudly point out the "imported" windows, rather than admit that they were made locally.
Restoration and Conservation
Stained glass has a long life, however it does need occasional repair. Some of the best examples of stained glass in Buffalo are found in inner city churches that are empty or abandoned and are at risk of vandalism or loss. Most of the windows in St. Brigid's in south Buffalo were lost in a fire in 1966.
The Riester windows in Our Lady of Lourdes on Main and Best Streets were recently removed and sold to an antique dealer.
Some rural churches have disappeared completely. Others, particularly those in suburban locations, are less at risk, however, the windows in a large convent in Williamsville were dispersed at auction in 1999 when the order moved to a new convent. The Andrle windows in Our Lady of Victory Basilica in Lackawanna are well cared for and recently underwent a two-year restoration. The Frohe windows in St. Ann's were rescued after a fire and were placed in the collection of the Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society.
Medieval stained glass windows lasted several hundred years before needing to be re-leaded. Nineteenth century windows usually need re-leading after only a hundred years. The reason is that lead used in early windows contained impurities that added to its strength. Modern methods produce a purer lead that lacks the strength. It actually became necessary to pay extra to have traces of other metals added back into the lead to give it more strength.
Much of the stained glass in Buffalo and around the country has recently passed or is quickly approaching its 100th anniversary and most of this glass has probably never been cleaned or repaired since it was installed. The first step in preserving and restoring historic leaded glass is a thorough documentation and recording project, something that has been started in some areas of the United States, but not in Buffalo yet.
From at least 1856, the Buffalo City Directories by various publishers included a business directory that listed businesses in Buffalo according to various categories. This appendix contains transcripts of the business directory listings for the category glass stainers for a sampling of years. Some of the changes that occurred in the Buffalo stained glass industry can be inferred from these listings. For example, the listings show William H. Meyers disappearing in 1883. Booth & Riester apparently dissolve their partnership in 1888 and then Riester and Frohe are working together starting in 1893.
For the time period prior to 1856 when the city directories did not include business directories, it is necessary to examine the alphabetical directory listings themselves for people who gave their occupation as glass stainer, as in the 1844 to 1853 listings included below. This is impractical except when the names are already known. Similarly, after about 1905, while the directories still contain business directories, the names of most glass stainers no longer appear. Perhaps the directory began a policy of charging for the additional listing. Although these directories do contain business names as well as individual names in one alphabetical sequence, it is still necessary to know the names.
1844 Burns, George L., painter at 15 Webster Block, h 10 Elm.
1844 Miller, William G., paint store, 15 Webster Block, h 48 W. Eagle.
1847 Miller, Wm. G., painter, 15 Webster Block, Main.
1847 Myers, Wm. H., painter, W. G. Miller, h 137 S. Division.
1847 Thurston, C. J., glass stainer, W. G. Miller, bd Livingston Washington.
1847 White, H. G., painter, 113 Main, h 116 S. Division.
1848 Miller, William G., painter, 15 Webster Block, bd 5 Niagara.
1848 Myers, William, painter, h 443 Washington.
1848 Thurston, Charles A., glass stainer, W. G. Miller's, bd 23 Pearl.
1848 White, Henry G., painter, 113 Main, h 116 S. Division.
1852 Burns, Geo. L., painter, 106 Main, h 14 E. Eagle.
1852 Thurston, Charles J., glass stainer, h Seventh near Hudson.
1852 White, Henry G., paint shop, 15 Webster Block, h 116 S. Division.
1853 Burns, Geo. L., painter, 106 Main, h [illegible].
1853 Myers, William H., glass stainer, h Niagara near Virginia.
1853 Thurston, Charles J., glass stainer, over 79 Main, h Seventh near Hudson.
1853 White, Henry G., paint shop, 79 Main, h 116 S. Division.
1856 Burns, G. L., 82 Main.
1856 Dobinson, Joseph, 6th near Hudson.
1856 Scott, F. B., 3 S. Division.
1856 Smith, James, 66 Lloyd.
1856 Thurston, C. J., over 79 Main.
1859 Burns, George L., 82 Main.
1859 Johnston, George W., 63 Sixth.
1859 Thurston, Charles J., 5 Terrace.
1859 White, H. G., 273 Main.
1861 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1861 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1861 Thurston, Charles J., 5 Terrace.
1861 White, H. G. 273 Main.
1862 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1862 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1862 Thurston & Booth, 9 Terrace & 11 Pearl.
1862 White, H. G., 273 Main
1863 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1863 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1863 Thurston & Booth, 9 Terrace & 11 Pearl.
1863 White, H. G., 273 Main.
1864 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1864 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1864 Thurston, C. J., 9 Terrace & 11 Pearl.
1864 White, H. G., 273 Main.
1865 Booth & Riester, 11 Pearl.
1865 Burns, Geo. L., 204 Washington.
1865 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1865 White, H. G., 273 Main.
1866 Booth & Riester, 11 Pearl.
1866 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1866 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1866 White, H. G., 79 Main.
1867 Booth & Riester, 11 Pearl.
1867 Burns, George L., 204 Washington.
1867 Myers, William H., over 79 Main.
1868 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl.
1868 Burns, George L., 250 Washington.
1868 Myers, William H., over 83 Main.
1869 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl.
1869 Burns, George L., 208 Main.
1869 Myers, William H., over 83 Main.
1870 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl.
1870 Burns, George L. 208 Main.
1870 Myers, William H. over 83 Main.
1871 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl.
1871 Burns, George L. 208 Main.
1871 Myers, William H. over 83 Main.
1872 Booth, Riester & Co. 29 Pearl.
1872 Burns, George L. 208 Main.
1872 Myers, William H. over 83 Main.
1876 Booth, Riester & Co. 29 Pearl.
1876 Myers, William H. 83 Main.
1877 Booth, Riester & Co. 29 Pearl.
1877 Myers, William H. 83 Main.
1878 Booth, Riester & Co. 29 Pearl.
1878 Myers, William H. 83 Main.
1879 Booth, Riester & Co. 29 Pearl.
1879 Myers, William H. 83 Main.
1880 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl
1880 Myers, William H., 83 Main
1882 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl
1882 Myers, William H., 83 Main
1883 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl
1884 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl and over 23 & 25 Terrace
1885 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl and over 23 & 25 Terrace
1886 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl
1887 Booth & Riester, 29 Pearl
1888 Booth, George M. (Queen City Stained Glass Works) 55 Franklin
1888 Riester, Fernando J. (Buffalo Stained Glass Works) 29 Pearl
1893 Booth, George M. (Queen City Stained Glass Works) 65 Franklin
1893 Riester & Frohe (Buffalo Stained Glass Works) 29 Pearl
1902 Booth's Art Stained Glass Works, 67 Franklin.
1902 Briscall, William, 502 Washington.
1902 Buffalo Glass Co., 96 — 98 Seneca.
1902 Buffalo Stained Glass Works, 29 Pearl.
1902 Consolidated Art Glass Co. The, 603 Ellicott Square.
1902 Evans, Samuel, 95 Seneca.
1902 Frohe Art & Stained Glass Establishment, 220 Broadway.
1902 Warren, W. H., 49 Niagara.
1905 Becker Glass & Paint Co., 372 — 378 Pearl.
1905 Booth's Art Stained Glass Works, 67 Franklin.
1905 Briscall-Miller Co., 58 — 60 Genesee.
1905 Buffalo Glass Co., 96 — 98 Seneca.
1905 Buffalo Stained Glass Works, 29 Pearl.
1905 Frohe Art & Stained Glass Establishment, 220 Broadway.
1905 Genor & Evans, 101 — 107 Seneca.
1905 Terhaar, Frank J., 359 Jefferson.
This appendix contains a list of some of the people connected with the stained glass industry in Buffalo with a short paragraph or two giving known biographical details and some sources for further research.
Andrle, Otto F., 1865 — 1933, born in Buffalo. Apprenticed to Buffalo Stained Glass Works, c. 1884-7 to 1893. After a career as a Shakespearean actor 1895 to 1910, he went into business on his own, operating the Otto F. Andrle Stained Glass and Art Institute, Inc., from about 1913 to 1930. From 1930 he was associated with the Von Gerichten Studios in Columbus, Ohio until his death in 1933.
Booth, William, 1820 — 1892. He was an experienced art glazier. He came to the United States from Kent, England in 1840, settling first in New York City where he lived for four years before coming to Buffalo where he found work as a glass stainer. In 1864, he and Ferdinand Riester became proprietors of Buffalo Stained Glass Works of which he remained a partner of until his retirement in 1888. (Buffalo Courier, April 4, 1892.)
Burns, George L., 1820 - 1873. He was one of the first glass stainers in Buffalo, appearing in the City directories as early as 1844 as a painter, advertised glass staining and enameling as early as 1852. (See Gaining Reputation for Staining and Painting Glass, Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, September 14, 1854. See also Buffalo Daily Courier, July 22, 1873, Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, July 21, 1873 and Buffalo Express, July 22, 1873.)
Dengler, George, employee of Otto F. Andrle, no other information known.
Drago, Rosario J., 1908 — 1996, a native of Fredonia, he was apprenticed to the Andrle studio at the age of 17 where he helped to complete the windows for Our Lady of Victory Basilica in Lackawanna. He was a graduate of the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and worked in many artistic media including oil painting, drawing and sculpture. (Buffalo News, January 5, 1996)
Frohe, Ferdinand A., 1889 — 1959. He was the third generation of the Buffalo family engaged in the stained glass business founded by his grandfather, Gottfried Frohe. (Buffalo Evening News, October 5, 1959.)
Frohe, Gottfried, 1827 — 1908. He arrived in the United States from Holland in 1866 and began the stained glass business that is still in operation today. (Buffalo Evening News, October 10, 1908.)
Frohe, Leo P., died 1919, born in Holland. He continued the stained glass business started in Buffalo by his father, Gottfried Frohe. (Buffalo Evening News, October 5, 1959.)
Frohe, Paul E. Today he operates the stained glass business begun by his great-grandfather in 1866.
Miller, William G. He operated a paint store at 15 Webster Block on Main Street in Buffalo as early as 1844. He established the Buffalo Stained Glass Works in 1845. (Bailey, p. 203) Early glass stainers George L. Burns, Henry G. White and C. J. Thurston all got their start at 15 Webster Block. No other information known.
Myers, William H., 1816 — 1883. He was one of the first glass stainers in Buffalo, appearing in the City Directory as a painter as early as 1847. (See Buffalo Express, June 25, 1883 and Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, June 25, 1883.)
Odenwald, Henry, associated in business with Otto F. Andrle, no other information known.
Riester, Ferdinand (Fernando) J. B., 1840 — 1901. A native of France, he immigrated to Buffalo in 1852. He began an apprenticeship under George L. Burns in 1856 for whom he worked until 1864 when he and W. Booth bought out C. J. Thurston, proprietor of Buffalo Stained Glass Works. (Bailey, p. 203) In 1888 he became the sole owner of Buffalo Stained Glass Works. (Buffalo Express, September 1888.)
Thurston, Charles J. Possibly the first glass stainer in Buffalo, he succeeded William H. Miller as proprietor of the Buffalo Stained Glass Works, which he operated until 1864 or 1865 when he in turn was succeeded, by Booth and Riester. (Bailey, p. 203)
Appendix B. (con't.)
White, Henry G., 1814 — 1902. He appears as a painter as early as 1839 in Buffalo. He was a master painter and was a member of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and the Buffalo Historical Society. (See Formed Partnership with James Smith in Painting Business, Buffalo Commercial Advertiser and Journal, August 13, 1839 and Dissolved Partnership with Philander Bennett, Buffalo Emporium and General Advertiser, January 25, 1827. See also Buffalo Enquirer, December 30, 1902.)
By 1890, Buffalo Stained Glass Works had installed windows in over 850 churches across the United States and Canada so the following listing is only a very preliminary sampling.
Buffalo Stained Glass Works
St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Buffalo, New York.
St. Louis R. C. Church, Buffalo, New York
St. Stephen's Church, Buffalo, New York (6 figures and 2 large transept windows). (Napora, History)
The New Polish Church, Buffalo, New York.
Allegheny Cathedral, Allegheny, Pennsylvania (16 figure windows).
Baptist Church, Olean, New York (a memorial window).
Elma United Methodist Church, 2981 Bowen Road, Elma, New York, windows purchased from Buffalo Stained Glass Company in1892. (Fox, p. 99)
Presbyterian Church, Gowanda, New York.
Catholic Church, Gallitzin, Pennsylvania.
Clearfield, Pennsylvania (14 figure windows).
St. Adelbert's Polish Church, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
English Lutheran Church, Canton, Ohio.
St. Ann's, Detroit, Michigan (70 figure windows).
Otto F. Andrle Stained Glass and Art Studio
The following is a partial listing of churches containing windows by the Otto F. Andrle Stained Glass and Art Studio of Buffalo, New York:
St. Agnes Church, Buffalo, New York. (Napora, History)
St. Brigid's Church, 399 Louisiana Street, Buffalo, New York (destroyed by fire in 1968).
St. Gerard's RC Church, Buffalo, New York
St. Joseph's Cathedral, Buffalo, New York.
St. Mark's Church, Buffalo, New York. (Napora, History)
St. Mary Magdalene Church, Buffalo, New York. (Napora, History)
Basilica of Our Blessed Lady of Victory, Lackawanna, New York
Mount St. Mary's Hospital Chapel, Niagara Falls, New York.
St. Nicholas Church, North Java, New York.
Church of the Good Shepard, Pendleton, New York.
Fourteen Holy Helpers Shrine, West Seneca, New York.
St. Mary of the Angels Chapel, Williamsville, New York.
Our Lady Help of Christians Shrine, Cheektowaga, New York.
St. Rose of Lima Church, Forestville, New York.
American Reformed Dutch Church, Newburgh, New York.
St. Mary's Church, Swormville, New York.
Holy Trinity Church, Syracuse, New York.
Englise St. Jean Baptiste Church, Troy, New York.
St. Clara's Church, Clarendon, Pennsylvania.
St. Mary's Church, Genesee, Pennsylvania.
Holy Trinity Church, Maltby, Pennsylvania.
St. Joseph's Church, Nanticoke, Pennsylvania.
St. Anthony's Church, Sheffield, Pennsylvania.
-, The Art Work of Louis C. Tiffany, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page, 1914.
-, The Industries of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York: The Elstner Publishing Company,
Bailey, George M., Illustrated Buffalo; The Queen City of the Lakes, New York: Acme Publishing and Engraving Co., 1890.
Brisac, Catherine, A Thousand Years of Stained Glass, Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1986.
Buffalo City Directories, various publishers, 1844 - 1905.
Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, Gaining Reputation for Staining and Painting Glass, September 14, 1854, section 2, p. 5.
Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, George L. Burns, July 21, 1873.
Buffalo Daily Courier, George L. Burns, July 22, 1873.
Buffalo Emporium and General Advertiser, Dissolved Partnership with Philander Bennet, January 25, 1827.
Buffalo Express, Fernando J. Riester, September 1888. Buffalo and Erie County Public Library, Local Biographies Scrapbook, series 6, vol. 3, p. 7 (1938).
Buffalo Express, George L. Burns, July 22, 1873.
Buffalo Historical Society, Reports of the President and Secretary, Buffalo, New York, January 1920.
Buffalo News, Rosario J. Drago obituary, January 5, 1996.
Commercial Advertiser and Journal, Formed Partnership with James Smith in Painting Business, August 13, 1839.
Ehrlich, Doreen, Frank Lloyd Wright Glass, United States: Courage Books, 2000.
Fox, Austin M., Church Tales of the Niagara Frontier, Legend, History & Architecture, Buffalo, New York: Western New York Wares, 1994.
Fox, Austin M., ed., Erie County's Architectural Legacy, Erie County, New York: Erie County Preservation Board, 1983.
Frohe, Leo P., Receipts and Family Papers, 1875 — 1939, manuscript collection, Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society.
Heinz, Thomas, Frank Lloyd Wright's Stained Glass & Lightscreens, Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2000.
Kowsky, Francis R., et al, Buffalo Architecture: A Guide, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1981.
Lee, Lawrence, The Appreciation of Stained Glass, New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
Lloyd, John Gilbert, Stained Glass in America, Jenkintown, Pennsylvania: Foundation Books, 1963.
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Newton, Roy G. The Deterioration and Conservation of Painted Glass, London: Oxford University Press, 1974.
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Reyntiens, Patrick, The Beauty of Stained Glass, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1990.
Sowers, Robert, The Lost Art: A Survey of One Thousand Years of Stained Glass, New York: G. Wittenborn, 1954.
Sturm, James L., Stained Glass from Medieval Times to the Present: Treasures to be Seen in New York, New York: Dutton, 1982.
Vogel, Neal A. and Achilles, Rolf, The Preservation and Repair of Historic Stained and Leaded Glass, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources, Preservation Assistance, 1993.
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