Huyler Candy Company Building - Table of Contents

History of Huyler’s Candy Company
By Jennifer Walkowski

An excerpt from the  Huyler’s Candy Company Building Nomination for Listing on the State & National Registers of Historic Places.
Prepared by Clinton Brown Company Architecture/Rebuild

Huyler’s chocolate and candy company was once the largest and most prominent chocolate maker in the United States. Headquartered in New York City, the Huyler’s company operated a large chain of Huyler’s branded stores across the country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and their high-quality chocolate products were a part of daily life, given as holiday gifts, used as special indulgences and as treats for young boys and girls.
Huyler’s was founded by John S. Huyler. Born in New York City on June 26, 1846 to David and Abigail Ann (née DeKlyn), John  grew up living above his father’s bakery and ice cream shop on Jane Street in Greenwich Village. He was educated in the local public schools. Around 1863, at the age of 17, John entered the business world, working in his father’s shop.
Initially, John S. Huyler began making and selling candy out of his father’s store. John S. made a soft molasses chewing candy, a popular type of candy in the nineteenth century. At the time, many retailers shied away from making and selling soft molasses candy, as it was considered too difficult to market successfully to maximize profitability. John S. Huyler developed a unique new way of getting the word out about his candy, distributing small samples accompanied with literature which proclaimed, “Huyler’s genuine old-fashioned molasses candy, fresh every hour, and recommended by doctors and physicians for coughs and colds.”[1] While this initiative started small, it generated a lot of interest in New York about the candy, and soon the entire city was eager for Huyler’s candies.
In 1876, at the age of 30, John S. established his own shop, the first Huyler’s candy and confectionary store, located at 869 Broadway in New York. At this location, the front of the store had a few small tables and a pair of scales to weigh the candy. A small room at the back of the building served as the factory. The business began with John manufacturing the candy, and selling it over the counter himself, assisted later by a single sales girl. At what could have been just another small-scale candy making establishment, John S. Huyler distinguished his business with an innovative marketing strategy. As a way to attract interest in the candy, Huyler located a candy puller in the front store window, so that people walking by would stop and watch the candy being made. In a brilliant strategy, this not only assured customers that their candy was fresh, but watching the candy being made before their very eyes also enticed people to stop and pick up a bag or box of Huyler’s candies. Today, it is common to see candy being made in store windows or on visible counters, but this idea of showmanship was pioneered by John S. Huyler.[2]
Shortly after, the Huyler’s company began to flourish. Product lines were expanded, although the famous Huyler’s molasses candy was always on the menu, and the company also began selling chocolates and cocoa powders. Additional shops were opened in New York City and elsewhere. During this early period, Huyler’s shops were noted in Manhattan, Brooklyn and in Albany.[3] In 1881 the Huyler’s company was incorporated by members of the Huyler family, and became known as Huyler’s, Inc. During this same time a large factory was constructed located at Eleventh and Bleeker Streets in New York City, which manufactured the candy for retailing in the various shops. This facility was quickly out-grown, replaced around 1883 by a larger six-story factory and office located at 62-64 Irving Place and 18th Street.
The Huyler’s company prided itself on not only making and selling a high-quality product, but also focused on customer satisfaction. Huyler’s candies were manufactured in small batches, which cost more to produce that large batches, but it also allowed the company to monitor the quality of the products more carefully. The large factory, however, allowed for the company to continually produce these smaller batches, resulting in the overall production of more candy than his competitors which helped keep prices down. The freshest ingredients were also used in Huyler’s candies Huyler’s candies also guaranteed customer satisfaction in their products, and any box found to be unsatisfactory could be brought to a Huyler’s store for an exchange or refund. John S. Huyler noted that one satisfied customer was worth a dozen unsatisfied ones.[4]
In an era before labor reform and mandated standards for food safety in factories, the Huyler’s company worked to create a clean and efficient factory. The hundreds of young women who worked in the Huyler’s factory, comprising the bulk of its workforce, were carefully monitored to maintain the purity of the candy. As a measure of maintaining health standards in the candy, if a woman’s hands perspired too much (which would have been common in the typical hot, stuffy nineteenth century factory) she was not permitted to handle the candy. If her skin showed any evidence of sores, blisters or other medical issues, she was immediately sent home. These were not standard practices at the time in similar food manufactories, and helped to insure the safety, cleanliness and purity of the Huyler’s candies.[5]
Within a few short years, Huyler’s became synonymous with quality candy and chocolate, and the business attracted chocolatiers and candymakers from around the world. Many came to study the techniques and methods employed by the Huyler company in manufacturing their candies. One such interested novice chocolate maker was Milton S. Hershey. Hershey arrived in New York in the spring of 1883 and was employed at Huyler’s. It was recalled that as soon as “Mr. Hershey was old enough to get a position to pay his living expenses, he was working for the most famous candy makers in New York.” While learning the candy and chocolate trade from Huyler’s, Hershey began making his own candies in his landlady’s kitchen at night, marking the beginning of what would become one of today’s chocolate making empires. Hershey left Huyler’s in 1885 when he returned to Lancaster, PA to establish his own company.[6]
By 1885 Huyler’s operated its main store, located at 863 Broadway, and also opened several other locations. Noted among the Huyler’s branded shops were locations at 150 Broadway at the corner of Liberty Street, fashionable Newport, Rhode Island, and the resort communities of Saratoga, NY and Long Branch, New Jersey.


Also in 1885, the first Huyler’s branded store appeared in Buffalo. Operated by local confectioner, John T. Roberts, the Buffalo store opened at 350 Main Street in the heart of the city’s bustling commercial center. Clearly, Huyler’s was positioned as a high-end confectioner, catering more to a wealthy, upper-class clientele with disposable income. Huyler’s candies and chocolates were also available through other non-Huyler’s branded candy stores as well, which increased the market for their product.
Company development

In 1889, a devastating fire blazed through the Huyler’s factory. On the morning of June 18th, a fire was discovered on the third floor of the six-story building on Irving Street [in New York City] which housed various company operations. At the time of the fire it was noted that this building’s first floor housed offices, while the second floor was used as the shipping room; both these lower floors appear to have survived with minimal damage. The third floor operated as a machine room, and the remainder of the building was utilized for packing and finishing. The upper three floors of the building sustained the brunt of the damage. Adjacent to this building was another substantial six story building, noted as being of fire-proof construction, which was occupied by Huyler’s as their primary manufacturing building. This structure escaped serious damage. The fire damage and loss was estimated to be about $70,000 in stock, machinery, building damage and other loss. The 300 workers at the factory, nearly 200 of which were noted as being women, were said to subsequently be out of work for about two weeks while the company rebuilt and reopened after the fire.[7] Despite the loss and chaos instigated by this devastating fire, the Huyler’s company rebounded quickly, and business continued to thrive and grow.
Social involvement

As John S. Huyler continued to amass a fortune in the candy business, he also became involved in many charitable and social organizations. One group that Huyler was highly active with was the Mountain Retreat Association (MRA), a Christian retreat outside of Ashville, North Carolina founded by Rev. John C. Collins. Huyler was named as one of the incorporators of the MRA in 1897. The retreat eventually became known as Montreat, and Huyler became highly involved, eventually serving as President between 1899 and 1907. During his tenure with Montreat, Huyler spearheaded construction of the new Hotel Montreat in 1901, which was opened to visitors the following year. The construction of the large Tudor Revival hotel and conference building took the Montreat camp to a new level, establishing the retreat as a destination for lectures, conferences and events. Eventually John S. Huyler was given the mortgage to the camp because of his heavy investments. In 1905, he responded to a proposal by Rev. J.R. Howerton of the First Presbyterian Church in Charlotte, North Carolina to have the Presbyterian Synod of North Carolina take ownership of Montreat. This transaction was finally made complete in 1907, at such a low price to the Synod that it was considered a sort of gift from Mr. Huyler.[8]
Family involvement

Around the turn of the century, the Huyler candy business continued to thrive. John S. Huyler’s sons all entered the family business, and in a wise business move, Huyler started each son in a different branch of the business, starting them at the bottom of the ladder to maximize their familiarity with the way the company functioned at all levels. His oldest son, Frank DeKlyn Huyler, who joined the company shortly after graduating college, began working in the business office of the company, working his way through the different branches of this department. Son David entered the business around 1900, entering the manufacturing side of the company, learning the “art of candymaking.” Coulter D. Huyler, was active in the retail stores and management side of the business. Youngest son, John S. Huyler, Jr., was slated to begin working in his father’s company upon his graduation from college. Huyler’s was very much a family affair.[9]
Second Buffalo store

Buffalo’s second Huyler’s retail store opened in 1908. Known as the “Uptown store,” this new shop located at 566 Main Street was also managed by John. T. Roberts, who also continued to operate the “Downtown store” at 350 Main Street. In an advertisement, heralding the opening of the new Uptown store, the Huyler’s company was noted as selling “absolutely pure and fresh confections” which included their “delicious Bon Bons and Chocolates as well as Novelties in Fancy Boxes and Baskets.” This advertisement also noted that at this time, the Huyler’s shops in Buffalo also sent candy by mail or through express delivery. Interestingly, in 1908 the Huyler’s shop at 566 Main Street also included a soda fountain, a type of quick and inexpensive eatery which was highly popular in this era, indicating an expansion of the original Huyler’s confectionary business. Patrons could enjoy Huyler’s fountain drinks at the Statler Hotel’s Palm Room (built 1905-1908, demolished; Postcard), one of Buffalo’s most elegant and prestigious hotels, indicating the high-quality and sophistication of the Huyler’s products. As their slogan read, “A man is known by the candy he sends.”[10]
Huyler's Company expansion

At about this same time, as the nation-wide real estate investments of the Huyler’s company grew increasingly more complex as more stores were continually added to the business, a company was established to manage these holdings. The Gramercy Investing Company was operating at least by 1907, but the exact date it was created is unknown. Similarly structured as the Huyler’s company, the primary officers of the Gramercy Investing Company were Frank DeKlyn Huyler as President and Director, David Huyler as Treasurer and Director and Coulter D. Huyler as Secretary and Director. In 1913, a Gramercy Investing Company was founded in Pennsylvania for the purpose of “purchase, sale and exchange and the holding, mortgaging, improving, leasing and letting the real estate” in Pennsylvania.[11]
After many successful years in the confectionary business, candy tycoon John S. Huyler passed after a short illness in his palatial home in Rye, NY on October 1, 1910 at age 65. Huyler was remembered not only as a businessman, but also as a good Christian, an active member of the community, and as a charitable funder of many institutions, such as Montreat and also as the patron of several “fresh air camps” in Long Branch, New Jersey and Beckett, Massachusetts; a type of rural retreat aimed at getting women and children out of the dirty, polluted cities for time in the fresh, healthy air of the countryside.[12] At the time of his death, the Huyler’s company was noted as having 54 Huyler’s branded stores located across the country and in Canada, with 14 factories serving these stores. One of the largest, if not the largest candy and confectionery manufacturers in the United States at the time, the company employed over 2,000 workers.
Now in a state of transition, the Huyler’s company began a new era in ownership and management following the death of its founder and long-time leader. Benjamin F. DeKlyn, a relative by marriage of John S. Huyler, who had served as Vice President of the company for many years, sold thirty shares of stock in Huyler’s, Inc. to the Huyler sons in 1910, establishing the three brothers as the key stockholders in the company. Trained well in the operations of the business, the company was managed after the death of John S. Huyler by his sons. Frank DeKlyn Huyler, who had served as treasurer of the country under his father, stepped into the role of President following his father’s death. David Huyler became treasurer and manager of manufacturing, having fulfilled into the latter role during his father’s death. It was noted that David knew every aspect of candymaking, including how to make each and every piece of candy made by Huyler’s. Coulter D. became secretary of the company, and also continued to serve as manager of the retail stores. Under his leadership in this department, the Huyler’s stores had become “models of the art of retailing.”[13] The company issued an advertisement during this period, titled “The Truth About Huyler’s,”  intending it to dispel rumors (likely spread by Huyler’s competitors) and to allay the fears and concerns of patrons and stockholders that this change in management would in no way diminish the high-standards and quality associated with the Huyler’s confections.
However hard they endeavored to give the impression of tranquility and consistency in the newly revamped Huyler’s company, following the death of patriarch John S. Huyler, the business entered a period of turmoil. While the company continued to grow and expand its presence in the marketplace, operating in 24 cities with over 5,000 agencies selling their products in the US and abroad and running 14 branch factories which produced over 1,600 different kinds of candies by 1915, the operations end of the business appears to have suffered. In October of 1916 David Huyler sued his brothers Frank DeK. and Coulter, demanding their removal as Trustees of the company and charging them with “trickery.” This suit was instigated following his ousting as treasurer of the company on August 25, 1916 in what he considered a shady and underhanded, which included taking control of his shares of stock in Huyler’s in order to control the board of directors n order to remove him as a director, treasurer and factory manager. On a personal level, David claimed that it was his deceased father’s wish that the three sons manage and run the Huyler’s company together.[14] Although the suit was settled amicably and David maintained his place in the Huyler’s, Inc. company, this suit indicates a period of internal strife between the Huyler brothers which clearly affected the business and operations of the Huyler’s Company in the late 1910s.[15]
Even in the 1920s, the company continued to face litigation and struggles. In 1920, Mrs. Martha A. Gaines, sister of the late John S. Huyler, sued the Huyler’s company to recover fifty shares of stock in the company which she said were owed to her. She also requested for an accounting of the dividends on the stock over thirty-five years. Eventually, this suit was dismissed, however it further hints at the instability and turmoil of the Huyler’s company following the death of founder John S. Huyler.[16]
Despite the volatility apparent in the Huyler’s operation, the company continued to grow and flourish. In fact, the early 1920s appear to have been the golden age for the Huyler’s company, despite the internal conflict. A 1915 advertisement proclaims 28 Huyler’s stores were located in the Greater New York area, with 51 shops located across the US and Canada.[17] By 1922 the Huyler’s chain had grown to become one of the most prominent confectioners in the country, operating 60 stores across the country and in Canada. Noted at the top of the list of principal chains in the candy business, Huyler’s was also noted for operating several stores as luncheonettes (a trend first noted back in 1908 with the opening of the store at 566 Main Street in Buffalo) and for the “striking” fact that these stores were open to the street, allowing passer-bys to see into the store itself rather than being screened by a display case, creating a display and store in one.[18]
During this era in the early half of the 1920s, the stores appear to have begun transitioning from just selling boxed confections to operating more as a luncheonette and restaurant, selling light lunches and food to its patrons in many of its stores. In what appears to be an attempt to rebrand the store, keeping pace with the proliferation of lunch counters in the US during this era, the Huyler’s stores began marketing itself as not “just a tea room, but a regular restaurant – a man’s place.” Traditionally, Huyler’s had been marketed towards a female clientele, urging men to buy chocolates to give as gifts. However, these new advertisements from the early 1920s indicate that Huyler’s was attempting to rebrand itself, in keeping with popular dining trends, as attractive to a male clientele as well, offering quick lunches at its many convenient locations.[19] Another advertisement from 1924 notes that in the past year (1923-1924), 22 new Huyler’s stores, all featuring the new restaurants, had been added to the company and an additional three were nearing completion and slated to be opened shortly.[20]
Regardless of this apparent success and expansion of the Huyler’s company, by then a household name, the Huyler family sold its interests in Huyler’s Inc. in 1925. On December 13, 1925, the Frank DeK., David and Coulter D. Huyler sold their interests in their father’s candy empire to an unnamed syndicate based in New Orleans. Led by banker Rudolph S. Hecht (President of the Hibernia Bank and Trust Company of New Orleans, Percy H, Johnston (President of the Chemical National Bank of New York), Fred W. Evans (President of the D.H. Holmes Company of New Orleans) and other, Huyler’s Inc. was sold to this syndicate for $7.5 million dollars. Irvin Fuerst, a member of the syndicate, was named as the new President of Huyler’s, Inc. [21] Although there is some mention of contemporary rumors that the Huyler’s chain was looking to merge with another company, which ultimately were proved to be false, no reason or motive for the sale appears to be noted; whether it was a financial opportunity that couldn’t be ignored, internal financial or political trouble or for other reasons. This transaction ended the Huyler family’s control over the confectionary retailing giant founded by their father John S. Huyler some fifty years earlier.[22]
Now under the control of the syndicate, the Huyler’s company continued operations. Under the ownership of the syndicate, the business and operations side of the company were reorganized and the factories were updated and modernized. Most of the older stores were refurbished and renovated, apparently as an attempt to not only modernize the décor of these shops, but also an as continued attempt to “de-feminize” the Huyler’s brand associations in order to attract a more masculine clientele to its luncheonettes and restaurants. Ten new stores were also added to the Huyler’s chain in the year of 1925-26, including shops in New York, Newark, Chicago, New Orleans and in Buffalo.[23] This Buffalo location is undoubtedly the Huyler Building at 374 Delaware Avenue.
The ownership of the New Orleans syndicate was brief, as on June 17, 1927 the Huyler’s candy company was sold to the D.A. Schulte Retain Stores Corporation. Run by David Arthur Schulte, the Schulte company, operators of “5¢-to-$1” shops across the country and was looking to expand its business into the candy and luncheonette business. Schulte retained many of the syndicate members as leaders in Huyler’s, including retaining Irvin Fuerst as President of Huyler’s. Schulte set about to recreate the Huyler brand, bringing it up to modern tastes and styles. Allied with the United Cigar Stores, the Schulte company sought to combine the Huyler luncheonettes with the tobacco counters. “With men’s tastes turning to ice cream sodas and women taking up smoking in earnest, the competition between the smokeshop and the soda foundation is doomed,” claimed Schulte. As a way to merge the soda shop and the tobacco counter, Schulte established the Huyler’s Luncheonettes, Inc to operate the new stores. The new Huyler’s Luncheonette, Inc. was moved out of the long-time home of the Huyler’s company at Irving Place, relocating to 110-112 East Thirteenth Street near Fourth Avenue. The former Huyler’s factory site at 64 Irving Place was subsequently sold by the Gramercy Investing Company, and the factory buildings were slated for demolition to make way for a $3-million dollar project which included a twenty-four story apartment building.[24] Under this new Huyler’s operation, Schulte began extensively remodeling existing Huyler’s stores. Schulte proclaimed that within the next five years they ambitiously expected to open 500 new stores.[25]
Schulte’s grand ideas for expanding the Huyler brand came to a screeching halt during the Great Depression which began in the fall of 1929. As a result of the Stock Market crash on "Black Thursday", October 24, 1929, and the resulting month-long tumble of the market and financial panics, the Great Depression brought an end to the unparalleled growth and prosperity of the 1920s. Millions of people found themselves unemployed and facing poverty, food shortages and homelessness during the late 1920s and into the 1930s. With little expendable cash during this era, luxury goods such as the fancy chocolates retailed by the Huyler’s company, were hit hard during the Great Depression. The reversal of economic climates moving into the 1930s, from boom to bust, would have had a devastating effect on the Huyler’s business.

This trend for the confectionary chain is evident in Buffalo. In 1927 Buffalo had three Huyler’s retail shops located at 350 Main Street (opened in 1885), 566 Main Street (opened in 1908) and 660 Main Street (opened ca. 1920s), plus the Huyler Building on Delaware Avenue. By 1930, Buffalo had one operational Huyler’s retail shop at 566 Main Street.
The Schulte chain, owners of the Huyler’s business, similarly faced a challenging time in the 1930s. Prior to the Stock Market Crash, the Schulte chain was already facing difficult times. In 1928, the Schulte company along with the Whelan Drug Co. and United Cigar Stores, merged and started 59 Schulte-United retail stores, located throughout the country. Following the market collapse, the Schulte-United stores fell into receivership in 1931, downsizing to only 20 stores, all located outside of New York City. Despite consistent sales of its cigars and tobacco products, the Schulte Retail Stores filed for bankruptcy in 1936, seeking reorganization. One cause was identified as David A. Schulte’s “tendency to lease too much real estate,” or in other words, Schulte’s big dreams of a rapidly expanding retail chain taxed the company too severely for it to remain financially viable. Schulte was noted for his penchant for overpriced corner retail locations, including a $6-million dollar prime corner location at New York’s Times Square.[26] This financial reorganization of their parent business, the Schulte Retail Stores, affected Huyler’s as well. Reorganization plans for the Schulte corporation also included reorganization of Huyler's, and these plans went into effect in November of 1940.[27]
The 1940s and 50s marked what appear to be the final years of the troubled Huyler’s company, which never regained the former glory of its pre-1930s golden age. As a result of an independent committee of stock holders, holding 7% stock in the Huyler’s company, the committee took steps to fix the total amount of claims against Schulte Retail Stores Company, study the relationship between Schulte and Huyler’s and also, if determined necessary, to prepare a separate plan for reorganizing the Huyler’s company.[28] In February of 1942, the Schulte company sold the rights to the Huyler’s company to a syndicate headed by Harry O. King, Chairman of the Brockway Motors Company, and R. Emerson Swart, President of the investment banking firm of R.E. Swart & Co. This syndicate controlled 42% of the stock, over 80,000 shares.[29] Swart was elected President of Huyler’s, taking over for Charles J. Gregory who had served as acting President before a successor was elected.[30] Swart, in turn, appointed two vice presidents for Huyler’s, John S. Swersey, who was noted as having been with the company for fifteen years, and D. Gregory Volkert, who was in charge of Huyler’s retail operations for over a year.[31] At the time of the transaction, it was noted that most of Huyler’s income was generated not by its candy sales, but by the 24 restaurants, located in 12 cities primarily near the East Coast including nine in New York City. Most of these restaurants featured soda fountains and lunch counters, and sold not only candy and chocolates but also wine and liquor was sold as well.[32]
This apparent stability as a result of the restructuring was short lived, however. By 1951, Huyler’s filed for bankruptcy. At the time, the company’s assets were listed at $3.8-million with liabilities of $2.3-million. The company attributed its financial downturn to a lack of working capital, a large inventory, a disappointing Christmas season in 1950, and the expense of updating and modernizing its stores and restaurants.[33] The Huyler’s company underwent yet another revamping and restructuring plan during 1952, which stipulated that creditors could participate only if outsiders invested substantially in the struggling company, proposing an investment of $250,000. The restructuring also stipulated that of the 11 restaurants that constituted the primary assets of the Huyler’s company in 1952, two had to be closed due to issues with landlords. Of the remaining 9 restaurants, four would be transferred to the holder’s of the receiver’s certificates, while the remaining five restaurants (located at 285 Fifth Avenue and 270 Broadway in New York City, as well as Boston, Washington and Grand Rapids) would continue in operation.[34]
The Huyler’s company had one last gasp in the 1950s. In June 1953, former Vice President of Huyler’s, John S. Swersey, purchased the rights, title and interests of the Huyler’s name. Swersey had resigned by Huyler’s in 1950 to form his own candy-making company, Swersey’s, Inc. Swersey formed a new corporation, Huyler’s Distributors, Inc., in order to sell products in the cookie, candy, soft drink, frozen food and ice cream fields.[35] Swersey relocated the Huyler’s Distributor’s, Inc. offices into the Empire State Building in June of 1953. However, after more seven decades as one of the nation’s premier confectionaries, with a name synonymous with sophistication and elegance, the Huyler’s company had become little more than a brand name slapped onto inexpensive convenience food items.
The sudden and untimely death of John S. Swersey at age 49 on September 22, 1953 appears to be the death knell for the Huyler’s name. By 1964 the Huyler’s Distributors, Inc. company was listed among dormant and worthless corporations and securities, marking the official end of the candy making giant.[36] The separately owned Huyler’s restaurants appear to have closed around this time as well, as several articles from the early 1970s reminisced about the “good old days” of visiting Huyler’s shops. What had once been a candy and chocolate making giant, on par with the Hershey or Mars companies today, is now just a faded memory of those folks old enough to remember it.
Jennifer Walkowski
Architectural Historian
Clinton Brown Company Architecture, pc
The Full Service Historic Preservation Architecture Firm (sm)
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[1] J.N. Kins, "The Accomplishment of Forty Years," The National Magazine XLI (Oct 1914 - Mar 1915, Inclusive): 536-40.
[2] J.N. Kins, "The Accomplishment of Forty Years," The National Magazine XLI (Oct 1914 - Mar 1915, Inclusive): 536-40.
[3] "John S. Huyler Dies in 65th Year." The New York Times 2 Oct. 1910: 13.
[4] J.N. Kins, "The Accomplishment of Forty Years," The National Magazine XLI (Oct 1914 - Mar 1915, Inclusive): 538.
[5] J.N. Kins, "The Accomplishment of Forty Years," The National Magazine XLI (Oct 1914 - Mar 1915, Inclusive): 538.
[6] As noted in Dr. W.D. Horne Interview Transcript. Recorded Oct 13, 1956. Paul Wallace Research Collection, Box 2, Folder 47. Hershey Community Archives, Hershey, PA.
[7] "Fire in a Candy Factory." The New York Times 19 June 1889: 8.
[8] "The Man Who Saved Montreat — John S. Huyler, the Candy King." Presbyterian Heritage Center at Montreat - Presbyterian History. 2007. Web. 13 May 2011. <>.
[9] "Let's Talk It Over." The National Magazine 35 (Dec 1911): 741-42.
[10] "Huyler's Advertisement." Buffalo Daily Courier 4 Apr. 1908, sec. 10: 1.
[11] Pennsylvania Secretary of the Commonwealth. Alphabetical List of Charters of Corporations Enrolled in the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth Together with an Alphabetical List of Foreign Corporations Registered. 1915: 62.
[12] George Derby and James Terry White, "Huyler, John S." The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, J.T. White &, 1916: 96.
[13] "The Truth About Huyler's," The National Druggist, XLI.11 (Nov 1911): 548.
[14] "David Huyler Sues to Oust Brothers." The New York Times 20 Oct. 1916: 15.
[15] Directory of Directors in the City of New York. New York: Directory of Directors, 1918: 913. Also, "Frank DeK. Huyler Dies Suddenly at 49," The New York Times 31 May 1927: 21.
[16] "Frank DeK. Huyler Dies Suddenly at 49…”
[17] New York City Directory, 1915: 2093.
[18] Walter Sumner Hayward, Chain Stores: Their Management and Operation, New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1922; 387-388.
[19] Huyler's Restaurants. Advertisement. The New York Times 4 Feb. 1924: 11. Also, Huyler's Restaurants. Advertisement. The New York Times 10 Jan. 1924: 19.
[20] This may include the Huyler Building on Delaware Avenue, which had plans drawn up initially in 1923. Huyler's Restaurants. Advertisement. The New York Times 10 Jan. 1924: 19.
[21] $7.5 million in 1925 is worth approximately $94 million in 2010 dollars. This was a significant business transaction for the time, and highlights the size, scale and prominence of the Huyler’s operations in the mid-1920s. This does not appear to have been a “fire sale” transaction as a result of a declining or weakening business, but instead appears to be a buy-out conducted at the height of the Huyler’s prominence. Refer to: "Frank DeK. Huyler Dies Suddenly at 49." The New York Times 31 May 1927: 21. Also, "Huyler's Is Added to Schulte's Chain." The New York Times 18 Jan. 1927: 27.
[22] Despite their sale of the Huyler’s company, the Huyler brothers retained their control of the Gramercy Inventing Company, and appear to have continued to manage and own the Huyler real estate holdings throughout the 1920s.
[23]  "Huyler's Is Added to Schulte's Chain." The New York Times 18 Jan. 1927: 27.
[24] "Review of the Day in Realty Market." The New York Times 20 July 1928: 35.
[25] "Schulte to Combine Soda and Smoke Shops; Says Changing Tastes Have Ended Rivalry." The New York Times 5 Apr. 1929: 30.
[26] "Business: Schulte & Specialties." TIME. 29 Nov. 1937. <,9171,758501,00.html>.
[27] "Reorganization Plans for Schulte Stores, Schulco Company and Huyler's Operative." The New York Times 30 Nov. 1940: 21.
[28] "Huyler's Group Formed." The New York Times 17 Jan. 1937: 49.
[29] "Huyler's Control Sold by Schulte." The New York Times. 19 Feb. 1942: 27.
[30] "R.E. Swart, Investment Banker, Is Elected Head of Huyler's." The New York Times 1 May 1942: 29.
[31] "Two Vice Presidents Appointed by Huyler's." The New York Times 8 Aug. 1942: 19.
[32] "Huyler's Control Sold by Schulte." The New York Times. 19 Feb. 1942: 27.
[33] "Huyler's in Bankruptcy." The New York Times 4 Apr. 1951: 49.
[34] "Revamping Plan Filed for Huylers: Trustee Says Creditors Can Participate Only If Outsiders Invest Substantially." The New York Times. 11 July 1952: 27.
[35] "Swersey Buys Huyler's: Candy Maker Gets Trade-Marks -- 6 Restaurants Not Included." The New York Times. 29 June 1953: 29. Also, "Huyler's Sold to Ex-Official." The Billboard (July 11, 1953): 80.
[36] "J.S. Swersey, Helped Develop K-Ration, 49." The New York Times. 23 Sept. 1953: 31. Also,  Robert Denton Fisher, Robert D. Fisher Manual of Valuable and Worthless Securities (1975): 373.

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